Doctors should aim at reconciling care individualization and impact on public health; master what artificial intelligence doesn’t do well; and refrain from commercializing health care. Public financing should make this possible.


Unger, JP., Morales, I., De Paepe, P. et al. The physician and professionalism today: challenges to and strategies for ethical professional medical practice. BMC Health Serv Res 20, 1069 (2020).

Doctors should blur the theoretical and practical borders that separate clinical medicine and public health.


Unger, JP., Morales, I., De Paepe, P. et al. A plea to merge clinical and public health practices: reasons and consequences. BMC Health Serv Res 20, 1068 (2020).


How can physicians continuously improve their clinical performance relying on the combined experience of their teams? A 25 year-experience (in Belgium) to disseminate internal medical audits in health services, to enhance medical reflectivity and care coordination across institutional divides and derive service organization improvements from clinical evaluation


Unger J.-P., Marchal B., Dugas S., Wuidar M. J., Burdet D., Leemans P. & Unger J. Interface flow process audit: using the patient's career as a tracer of quality of care and of system organisation. Int J Integr Care. 2004;4:1568-4156.

Medical associations, medical education, health services management and (inter-) national health policies should promote biopsychosocial care delivery and doctor patient negotiation of clinical conduct in LMICs, especially in their public services


Unger J. P., Van Dormael M., Criel B., Van der Vennet J., De Munck P. A plea for an initiative to strengthen family medicine in public health care services of developing countries. Int J Health Serv. 2002; 32(4): 799-815


Medical and paramedical practice