Doctors ought to deliver individualized care and optimize their impact on public health. Professional practice of medicine is justified to the extent that doctors concentrate on what artificial intelligence doesn’t do well and that they refrain from engaging in commercial medicine. Public financing can help enforce these rules.


Unger, JP., Morales, I., De Paepe, P. et al. The physician and professionalism today: challenges to and strategies for ethical professional medical practice. BMC Health Serv Res 20, 1069 (2020).

In practice, what does it mean to blur the theoretical and practical borders that separate clinical medicine and public health ?


Unger, JP., Morales, I., De Paepe, P. et al. A plea to merge clinical and public health practices: reasons and consequences. BMC Health Serv Res 20, 1068 (2020).


How can physicians continuously improve their clinical performance with teamwork ? A 25 year-experience (in Belgium) to disseminate internal medical audits in health services taught how to enhance medical reflectivity (how to permanently learn from one's mistakes), care coordination across institutional divides and derive service organization improvements from clinical evaluation


Unger J.-P., Marchal B., Dugas S., Wuidar M. J., Burdet D., Leemans P. & Unger J. Interface flow process audit: using the patient's career as a tracer of quality of care and of system organisation. Int J Integr Care. 2004;4:1568-4156.

Here is a political strategy for medical associations, trade unions and mutual aid associations concerned with the promotion of medical professionalism and of the biopsychosocial , patient-centred healthcare model. Here are public health principles for a collective doctors-patients negotiation of a common healthcare policy. 


Unger J. P., Van Dormael M., Criel B., Van der Vennet J., De Munck P. A plea for an initiative to strengthen family medicine in public health care services of developing countries. Int J Health Serv. 2002; 32(4): 799-815


Medical and paramedical practice