Disease control and medical prevention

Why are health services used for their clinical medicine offer so important for disease control?


An answer through the analysis of a malaria control program in Mali and in Africa


Unger JP, d'Alessandro U, De Paepe P, & Green A. Can malaria be controlled where basic health services are not used? Tropical Med Int Health. 2006; 11,3: 314-322.



Van Dormael M., Unger J.-P., De Paepe P. e-Letter. Health services are badly needed to control malaria (and other diseases). British Medical Journal25 May 2004;



How can disease control programs damage the quality and access to clinical services?


  1. Unger J.-P., De Paepe P., Green A. A code of best practice for disease control programmes to avoid damaging health care services in developing countries Int J Health Planning and Management 2003; 18: S27-S39.



  1. Unger J.-P. Can intensive campaigns dynamize front line health services ? The Evaluation of a Vaccination Campaign in Thiès Medical District, Senegal. Soc Sci Med 1991; 32(3): 249-259. Notice that this article also shows the importance of preventive medicine in public health



The international health policy allocates the disease control programs to public services and clinical medicine to the private sector. The lack of their integration explains the international policy failure. Theoretically, clinical care and public health interventions could have been integrated in private health services – and there were attempts to privatize disease control programs. But the following publications explain why they failed.


Unger JP, De Paepe P, Ghilbert P, Zocchi W, Van Dessel P, Qadeer I, et al. Privatization (PPM-DOTS) strategy for tuberculosis control: how evidence-based is it? In: Unger JP, De Paepe P, Sen K, Soors W, editors. International health and aid policies; the need for alternatives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010:57-66.



De Paepe P., Devadasan N., Soors W., Unger J.-P. e-Letter. Public-private partnership for tuberculosis? British Medical Journal 24 Feb 2006



Ghilbert P., De Paepe P., Unger J.-P. e-Letter. Tuberculosis and the private sector: another wishful thinking?British Medical JournalOct 2003;



How to use of semi-quantitative epidemiological information to manage African local health systems?


Unger JP & Dujardin B. Epidemiology's contribution to health service management and planning in developing countries. Bulletin of WHO. 1992; 70,4:487-497


How important is it to protect workers from Covid-19? A comparative analysis

Unger J-P. Comparison of COVID-19 Health Risks With Other Viral Occupational Hazards. International Journal of Health Services. 2021;51(1):37-49. doi:10.1177/0020731420946590


A methodology to design disease control based on the epidemiological characteristics of the disease fit for doctors and public health programs


Unger J.-P., Criel B., Mercenier P. The Vertical Approach - A methodology for the identification of  priorities for action and research  in disease control programmes. Studies in Health Service Organization and Policy 1998; 8: 17-43.